Poly-unsaturated fats include Omega-3 & Omega-6 essential fatty acids.
Lipids form cell membranes, are a good energy source, aid in insulation and absorption of fat soluble vitamins from foods.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. 9/20 AA are essential. Essential=body cannot self-synthesize.
Simple carbohydrates have 1-2 sugar molecules. Monosaccharides (ex: glucose-in blood, fructose-in fruits, galactose-in dairy). Disaccharides (ex: sucrose, lactose-in milk)
Complex carbohydrates, aka polysaccharides include starch-in potatoes, glycogen-body's stored energy source, dietary fiber.
Dietary fiber is obtained solely from plants. Soluble fiber (dissolves in water) slows the breakdown of complex carbs; blood has less dramatic sugar spikes and you feel fuller longer. It binds cholesterol to the stool thereby reducing cholesterol levels.
Insoluble fiber is not easily absorbed by the body. It cleans the GI tract and promotes regular bowel movements, by drawing water into the stools, making them larger and easier to pass.
Some vitamins are antioxidants (neutralizers of free radicals).
Ex: Vit A, Riboflavin, Niacin, Folate, Vit E.
Ex: Calcium, Phosphorus, Zinc.
Ex: carotenoids, flavonoids, lycopene, phenols.
- Sources of All of the Above:
2. Vegetables: vital source of vitamins, minerals, fiber
3. Fruits: good source of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, phytochemicals
4. Milk/dairy: important source of protein, vitamins, minerals (esp Ca2+)
5. Protein sources (like meat, poultry, fish, plant proteins-peanuts): for protein's sake!